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Higgs Boson-Like Particle Discovery Claimed at LHC

Discussion in 'TUG Lounge' started by MULTIZ321, Jul 4, 2012.

  1. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Higgs Factory a 'Must for Big Physics'
    By Paul Rincon/ Science & Environment/ News/ BBC/ bbc.com

    "A top physicist says the construction of a "factory" to produce Higgs boson particles is a priority for the science community.

    In an exclusive interview, Nigel Lockyer, head of America's premier particle physics lab, said studying the Higgs could hasten major discoveries.

    He said momentum in the physics community was gathering for a machine to be built either in Europe or Asia.

    "Our field uniformly agrees that would be a good thing," he told the BBC.

    The Fermilab director added: "The Higgs is such an interesting particle - a unique particle."

    The Higgs boson - named after British theoretical physicist Peter Higgs - was discovered in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle smasher under the Franco-Swiss border.

    The detection capped a decades-long effort to detect the particle experimentally, adding the last missing piece to the theory of particle physics known as the Standard Model, or SM...."

    [​IMG]
    Cern
    Image caption A candidate Higgs boson collision event at CMS, one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider



    Richard
     
  2. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Get a Drone's-Eye View of the Large Hadron Collider
    NBC News/ CERN/ Accelerating Science/ Video/ nbcnews.com

    "Researchers at Europe's CERN particle physics center send a camera-equipped drone above and through the Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest particle-smasher. These shots focus on the ALICE detector, which recreates the conditions that existed just an instant after the Big Bang...."

    Richard
     
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  3. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Nuclear Detectives Hunt Invisible Particles That Escaped the World's Largest Atom Smasher
    By Rafi Letzter/ Live Science Staff Writer/ Science & Astronomy/ space.com

    "A few years from now, if a crew of physicists gets its way, a squat building will rise above the border between France and Switzerland. This warehouse-size annex will join a scientific facility so large it crosses national borders. And, if the researchers proposing the construction are correct, it just might find the missing pieces of the universe.

    Separated by a few hundred vertical feet of bedrock granite from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the new building would contain a scientific instrument called the MATHUSLA device (Massive Timing Hodoscope for Ultra Stable Neutral Particles), named after the longest-living man in the Book of Genesis. Its job: to hunt for long-lived particles that the LHC can't detect itself.

    There's something strange about the idea. The LHC is the biggest, baddest particle accelerator in the world: a 17-mile (27 kilometers) ring of superconducting magnets that, 11,245 times per second, flings a few thousand protons at one another at significant fractions of the speed of light and then, whenever anything interesting happens, records the result...."

    [​IMG]
    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is one of the machine's two big all-purpose detectors.
    Credit: CERN



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  4. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    CERN's Large Hadron Collider Getting Major Luminosity Upgrade
    By David Szondy/ Physics/ New Atlas/ newatlas.com

    "After eight years of banging subatomic particles together, CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is getting a major upgrade. In a ceremony on Friday, the high-energy physics laboratory broke ground on the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project that, when it goes online in 2026, will increase the collision rates of the LHC by up to a factor of seven and allow around 10 times more data to be collected.

    Though the LHC has been up and running since 2010, the new HL-LHC upgrades have been on the drawing board since November 2011. The project involves 29 institutes based in 13 countries and was formally approved by the CERN Council in June 2016, followed by prototyping of elements of the hardware that will go into modifying the 27-km (16.8 mi) collider ring.

    CERN says that the new work will require replacing 1.2 km (3,937 ft) of the ring and swapping out various magnets, collimators, and radiofrequency cavities at the LHC's two main sites in France and Switzerland. This will mean erecting new buildings and the cutting of new shafts, caverns and underground galleries that will house new cryogenic equipment, electrical power supply systems, and new plants for cooling and ventilation. Though the LHC will remain online during the work, there will be two technical stop periods as well as annual maintenance work....."

    [​IMG]
    Prototype of a quadrupole magnet for the High-Luminosity LHC project(Credit: Robert Hradil, Monika Majer/ProStudio22.ch)


    Richard
     
  5. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Large Hadron Collider Will Become 10 Times More Powerful After Ongoing Upgrade
    By Lorenzo Tanos/ Science/ Inquisitr/ inquisitr.com

    "The Large Hadron Collider is currently getting a massive upgrade, and once everything is completed, it is expected to be substantially more powerful, and capable of helping scientists make bigger breakthroughs with all the data the atom smasher will be able to gather.

    According to Engadget, work on the LHC upgrade began on Friday in Geneva, Switzerland, with a ground-breaking ceremony officially kicking off a project that is expected to be completed sometime in 2026. The upgrade will transform the atom smasher into an even higher-end machine, one called the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider or HL-LHC.

    Currently, the Large Hadron Collider is made up of two overlapping 16-mile (27-kilometer) rings, with four intersecting points where protons can collide. Once upgraded, the machine will be able to gather about five to seven times more data than it can at the present, but in order to do that, the LHC team will need to increase the chances of protons colliding into each other by squeezing the particle beams at the four intersections....."

    Richard
     
  6. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Researchers Find More Evidence for the Higgs Boson
    By Jason Daley/ Smart News: Keeping You Current/ Smithsonian/ smithsonianmag.com

    "Analysis of years of data from the Large Hadron Collider shows evidence the particle decays into bottom quarks.

    July 4, 2012. Besides being the United States’ 236th birthday, it was the day that physicists announced that they had found strong evidence of the Higgs boson, an elusive particle that imparts mass to other elementary particles in the universe. It was one of the most important achievements in physics in the last century, and it took the construction of the Large Hadron Collider, the giant particle accelerator based outside Geneva, Switzerland, to test for it. Following that triumph, the physics community was confident that more discoveries would follow from CERN. But literally quadrillions of proton collisions in the collider later, nothing new has emerged. Now, however, after sifting through years of data, researchers working on the LHC’s ATLAS experiment announced that they can confirm something new: the decay of the Higgs boson produces bottom quarks, lending support to a theoretical framework of physics known as the Standard Model of particle physics.

    According to a press release, the 2012 Higgs sighting was incomplete. While actually observing a Higgs boson is not currently possible, detecting the bits the particle decays into is something the particle accelerator can do. At that time, two predicted particles called W and Z bosons were observed, which are expected in about 30 percent of decaying Higgs bosons. But researchers did not see the particles expected 60 percent of the time—bottom quarks.

    Or at least, so they thought. The problem, explains the Wire, is that they did see bottom quarks, just too many of them; the collider produces lots of bottoms quarks through various interactions besides the streams of protons it’s been designed to slam into one another. So figuring out whether a bottom quark detected in the LHC came from a decaying Higgs boson or from somewhere else proved extremely difficult. That’s why it took so long for scientists to reach the point of reasonable certainty that some of the bottom quarks they were observing were coming from Higgs decay. Looking at all the data since 2011 and using new analytical techniques like deep artificial neural nets and machine learning, they finally found statistically significant evidence of the Higgs-generated bottom quarks......"

    [​IMG]
    (ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)



    Richard
     
  7. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Has the Large Hadron Collider Accidentally Thrown Away the Evidence for New Physics?
    By Ethan Siegel/ Starts With a Bang/ Forbes/ forbes.com

    "Over at the Large Hadron Collider, protons simultaneously circle clockwise and counterclockwise, smashing into one another while moving at 99.9999991% the speed of light apiece. At two specific points designed to have the greatest numbers of collisions, enormous particle detectors were constructed and installed: the CMS and ATLAS detectors. After billions upon billions of collisions at these enormous energies, the LHC has brought us further in our hunt for the fundamental nature of the Universe and our understanding of the elementary building blocks of matter.

    Earlier this month, the LHC celebrated 10 years of operation, with the discovery of the Higgs boson marking its crowning achievement. Yet despite these successes, no new particles, interactions, decays, or fundamental physics has been found. Worst of all is this: most of CERN's data from the LHC has been lost forever.

    This is one of the least well-understood pieces of the high-energy physics puzzle, at least among the general public. The LHC hasn't just lost most of its data: it's lost a whopping 99.9999% of it. That's right; out of every one million collisions that occurs at the LHC, only one of them has all of its data written down and recorded.

    It's something that happened out of necessity, due to the limitations imposed by the laws of nature themselves, as well as what technology can presently do. But in making that decision, there's a tremendous fear made all the more palpable by the fact that, other than the much-anticipated Higgs, nothing new has been discovered. The fear is this: that there is new physics waiting to be discovered, but we've missed it by throwing this data away.

    We didn't have a choice in the matter, really. Something had to be thrown away. The way the LHC works is by accelerating protons as close to the speed of light as possible in opposite directions and smashing them together. This is how particle accelerators have worked best for generations. According to Einstein, a particle's energy is a combination of its rest mass (which you may recognize as E = mc2) and the energy of its motion, also known as its kinetic energy. The faster you go — or more accurately, the closer you get to the speed of light — the higher energy-per-particle you can achieve....."

    [​IMG]
    The ATLAS particle detector of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Nuclear Research Center (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. Built inside an underground tunnel of 27km (17miles) in circumference, CERN's LHC is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider and the largest single machine in the world. It can only record a tiny fraction of the data it collects.



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  8. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    'Behind the Science': An Exclusive Visit at Cern of Geneva (Ep 1)
    By Claudio Rosmino/ Switzerland/ Euronews/ euronews.com

    "Who are the people working behind the scene of a scientific discovery?

    Who helps and inspires scientists on their journey towards knowledge?

    When a breaking news comes up, we usually see a scientist or a researcher on the cover pages, but how many other people are working behind them to make this possible?

    CERN has opened its doors of his headquarter in Geneva exclusively to Euronews, and helped us to discover some of the services that are essential for the functioning of the scientific machine when it comes to unlock the secrets of our universe.

    In each episode of our mini serie « Behind the Science », we will discover, in a straight storytelling style, the contribution of those « hidden» people working for one of the most important centre of research for physics in the world.

    We will guide you through their experiences by sharing their successes, challenges and passions...."

    Richard
     
  9. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    CERN Scientists Say the LHC Has Confirmed Two New Particles, and Possibly Discovered a Third
    By Michelle Star/ Physics/ Science Alert/ sciencealert.com

    "They are known as bottom baryons.

    The Large Hadron Collider is at it again, showing us new wonders in the world of particle physics. Scientists working on the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) collaboration have observed two new particles that have never been seen before - and seen evidence of a third.

    The two new particles, predicted by the standard quark model, are baryons - the same family of particles as the protons used in LHC particle acceleration experiments.

    Baryons are what most of the Universe is made up of, including protons and neutrons - composite particles consisting of three fundamental particles called quarks, which have different 'flavours', or types: up, down, top, bottom, charm, and strange.

    Protons consist of two up quarks and one down quark, while neutrons consist of one up quark and two down quarks, for instance. But the two new particles discovered have a slightly different composition.

    Named Σb(6097)+ and Σb(6097)-, they consist of two up quarks and one bottom quark; and two down quarks and one bottom quark, respectively.

    These particles are known as bottom baryons, and they are related to four particles previously observed at Fermilab. However, the new observations mark the first time scientists have detected these higher-mass counterparts; they are about six times more massive than a proton....."

    [​IMG]
    (CERN)


    Richard
     
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  10. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Mystery Particle Spotted? Discovery Would Require Physics So Weird That Nobody Has Even Thought of It
    By Roger Barlow/ Science & Technology/ The Conversation/ theconversation.com

    "There was a huge amount of excitement when the Higgs boson was first spotted back in 2012 – a discovery that bagged the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2013. The particle completed the so-called standard model, our current best theory of understanding nature at the level of particles.

    Now scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at Cern think they may have seen another particle, detected as a peak at a certain energy in the data, although the finding is yet to be confirmed. Again there’s a lot of excitement among particle physicists, but this time it is mixed with a sense of anxiety. Unlike the Higgs particle, which confirmed our understanding of physical reality, this new particle seems to threaten it.

    The new result – consisting of a mysterious bump in the data at 28 GeV (a unit of energy) – has been published as a preprint on ArXiv. It is not yet in a peer-reviewed journal – but that’s not a big issue. The LHC collaborations have very tight internal review procedures, and we can be confident that the authors have done the sums correctly when they report a “4.2 standard deviation significance”. That means that the probability of getting a peak this big by chance – created by random noise in the data rather than a real particle – is only 0.0013%. That’s tiny – 13 in a million. So it seems like it must a real event rather than random noise – but nobody’s opening the champagne yet.

    What the data says

    Many LHC experiments, which smash beams of protons (particles in the atomic nucleus) together, find evidence for new and exotic particles by looking for an unusual build up of known particles, such as photons (particles of light) or electrons. That’s because heavy and “invisible” particles such as the Higgs are often unstable and tend to fall apart (decay) into lighter particles that are easier to detect. We can therefore look for these particles in experimental data to work out whether they are the result of a heavier particle decay. The LHC has found many new particles by such techniques, and they have all fitted into the standard model.

    The new finding comes from an experiment involving the CMS detector, which recorded a number of pairs of muons – well known and easily identified particles that are similar to electrons, but heavier. It analysed their energies and directions and asked: if this pair came from the decay of a single parent particle, what would the mass of that parent be?....."

    [​IMG]
    CMS model of a Higgs boson decaying into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. Lucas Taylor/CERN, CC BY-SA



    Richard
     
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  11. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    CERN's New Collider Design Is Four Times Larger Than the LHC
    By Becky Ferreira/ Colliders/ Motherboard/ motherboard.vice.com

    "If built, the Future Circular Collider will be 10 times more powerful than the Large Hadron Collider, and could discover new types of particles.

    The 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson particle at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is widely considered to be one of the most important scientific breakthroughs in history. It validated a half-century of research about the basic building blocks of matter, and remains the crowning achievement of modern particle physics.

    Now, CERN wants to follow up on the LHC’s smashing success with a super-sized structure called the Future Circular Collider (FCC). This next-generation particle accelerator would boast 10 times the observational power of the LHC and would stretch across 100 kilometers (62 miles), encircling the Swiss city of Geneva and much of the surrounding area.

    CERN published its first conceptual design report for the FCC on Tuesday. The four-volume roadmap was developed over five years by 1,300 contributors based at 150 universities, according to a statement.

    Colliders examine the smallest scales of the known universe by shooting particles through tunnels at near light speeds and studying the weird quantum junk that’s created when they crash into each other. The end goal for the FCC is to build a gigantic super-powerful version of the LHC that could discover entirely new forms of matter and observe known particles like the Higgs boson in unprecedented detail.

    “The FCC conceptual design report is a remarkable accomplishment,” CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti said in a statement. “It shows the tremendous potential of the FCC to improve our knowledge of fundamental physics and to advance many technologies with a broad impact on society.”

    The report projects that the FCC would cost about $17 billion and would not be completed until the 2050s, at the earliest. However, the huge underground tunnel required for the collider could accommodate other physics projects in the meantime...."

    [​IMG]
    Concept image of the Future Circular Collider. Image: CERN



    Richard





     
  12. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    Fabiola Gianotti: 'There is Nothing More Rewarding Than Discovering a New Particle'
    By Ian Sample/ The Observer/ Cern/ Science/ The Guardian/ theguardian.com

    "An Italian particle physicist, Fabiola Gianotti, 58, has been the director general of Cern since January 2016. Previously she led a collaboration of around 3,000 physicists from 38 countries which co-discovered the Higgs boson in 2012. Last month Cern published plans for a €20bn successor to the Large Hadron Collider.

    What’s up with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)?
    The LHC is in shutdown because we are going to upgrade the accelerator complex. We’ll upgrade the injectors and the experiments and resume taking data in 2021 with higher intensity beams. We’ll run for three more years and then shut down again until 2026 to upgrade the LHC for the high-luminosity phase. Higher luminosity means more collisions. We can study fundamental particles in much more detail. We’ll be producing about 15m Higgs bosons per year....."

    [​IMG]
    Fabiola Gianotti: ‘Diversity is an asset; we have to use it in the best way.’ Photograph: Valentin Flauraud/EPA/Rex/Shutterstock


    Richard
     
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    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    The Physics Still Hiding in the Higgs Boson
    By Natalie Wolchover/ Cosmology/ Particle Physics/ Physics/ Theoretical Physics/ QuantaMagazine/ quantamagazine.org

    "No new particles have been found at the Large Hadron Collider since the Higgs boson in 2012, but physicists say there’s much we can still learn from the Higgs itself.

    In 2012, particles smashed together in the Large Hadron Collider’s 27-kilometer circular tunnel conjured up the Higgs boson — the last missing particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics, and the linchpin that holds that decades-old set of equations together.

    But no other new particles have materialized at the LHC, leaving open many mysteries about the universe that the Standard Model doesn’t address. A debate has ensued over whether to build an even more enormous successor to the LHC — a proposed machine 100 kilometers in circumference, possibly in Switzerland or China — to continue the search for new physics.

    Physicists say there’s much we can still learn from the Higgs boson itself. What’s known is that the particle’s existence confirms a 55-year-old theory about the origin of mass in the universe. Its discovery won the 2013 Nobel Prize for Peter Higgs and François Englert, two of six theorists who proposed this mass-generating mechanism in the 1960s. The mechanism involves a field permeating all of space. The Higgs particle is a ripple, or quantum fluctuation, in this Higgs field. Because quantum mechanics tangles up the particles and fields of nature, the presence of the Higgs field spills over into other quantum fields; it’s this coupling that gives their associated particles mass.

    But physicists understand little about the omnipresent Higgs field, or the fateful moment in the early universe when it suddenly shifted from having zero value everywhere (or in other words, not existing) into its current, uniformly valued state. That shift, or “symmetry-breaking” event, instantly rendered quarks, electrons and many other fundamental particles massive, which led them to form atoms and all the other structures seen in the cosmos.

    But why? “Why should the universe decide to have this Higgs presence all over? That is a big, big question,” said Michelangelo Mangano, a particle theorist at CERN, the laboratory that houses the LHC......"

    [​IMG]
    This 2018 collision event at the Large Hadron Collider appeared to produce a Higgs boson and a Z boson. The two gray cones represent jets of particles that decayed from a bottom and an anti-bottom quark, which likely decayed from a Higgs particle. The green lines depict an electron and a positron, which likely decayed from a Z boson.
    Thomas McCauley ©2018 CERN


    Richard
     
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    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    CERN: Study Sheds Light on One of Physics' Biggest Mysteries - Why There Is More Matter Than Antimatter
    By Marco Gersabeck/ Science & Technology/ The Conversation/ theconversation.com

    "Why do we exist? This is arguably the most profound question there is and one that may seem completely outside the scope of particle physics. But our new experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider has taken us a step closer to figuring it out.

    To understand why, let’s go back in time some 13.8 billion years to the Big Bang. This event produced equal amounts of the matter you are made of and something called antimatter. It is believed that every particle has an antimatter companion that is virtually identical to itself, but with the opposite charge. When a particle and its antiparticle meet, they annihilate each other – disappearing in a burst of light.

    Why the universe we see today is made entirely out of matter is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. Had there ever been an equal amount of antimatter, everything in the universe would have been annihilated. Our research has unveiled a new source of this asymmetry between matter and antimatter.

    Antimatter was first postulated by Arthur Schuster in 1896, given a theoretical footing by Paul Dirac in 1928, and discovered in the form of anti-electrons, dubbed positrons, by Carl Anderson in 1932. The positrons occur in natural radioactive processes, such as in the decay of Potassium-40. This means your average banana (which contains Potassium) emits a positron every 75 minutes. These then annihilate with matter electrons to produce light. Medical applications like PET scanners produce antimatter in the same process.

    The fundamental building blocks of matter that make up atoms are elementary particles called quarks and leptons. There are six kinds of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top. Similarly, there are six leptons: the electron, muon, tau and the three neutrinos. There are also antimatter copies of these twelve particles that differ only in their charge....."

    [​IMG]
    LHCb. Maximilien Brice et al./CERN


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    ROYAL HOLIDAY CLUB RHC (POINTS)
    World's Largest Atom Smasher May Have Just Found Evidence For Why Our Universe Exists
    By Stephanie Pappas/ Astronomy/ Science/ Fox News/ foxnews.com

    "For the first time ever, physicists at the world’s largest atom smasher have observed differences in the decay of particles and antiparticles containing a basic building block of matter, called the charm quark.

    The finding could help explain the mystery of why matter exists at all.

    "It's a historic milestone," said Sheldon Stone, a professor of physics at Syracuse University and one of the collaborators on the new research.

    Matter and antimatter

    Every particle of matter has an antiparticle, which is identical in mass but with an opposite electrical charge. When matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate one another. That's a problem. The Big Bang should have created an equivalent amount of matter and antimatter, and all of those particles should have destroyed each other rapidly, leaving nothing behind but pure energy. [Strange Quarks and Muons, Oh My! Nature’s Tiniest Particles Dissected]

    Clearly, that didn't happen. Instead, about 1 in a billion quarks (the elementary particles that make up protons and neutrons) survived. Thus, the universe exists. What that means is that particles and antiparticles must not behave entirely identically, Stone told Live Science. They should instead decay at slightly different rates, allowing for an imbalance between matter and antimatter. Physicists call that difference in behavior the charge-parity (CP) violation.

    The notion of the CP violation came from Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov, who proposed it in 1967 as an explanation for why matter survived the Big Bang.

    "This is one of the criteria necessary for us to exist," Stone said, "so it's kind of important to understand what the origin of CP violation is."...."

    [​IMG]
    The LHCb detector at CERN. (CERN)



    Richard
     
  16. MULTIZ321

    MULTIZ321 TUG Member

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    ROYAL HOLIDAY CLUB RHC (POINTS)
    Ten Things You Might Not Know About Particle Accelerators
    By Sarah Witman/ Symmetry Magazine/ symmetrymagazine.org

    "From accelerators unexpectedly beneath your feet to a ferret that once cleaned accelerator components, Symmetry shares some lesser-known facts about particle accelerators.

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN laboratory has made its way into popular culture: Comedian Jon Stewart jokes about it on The Daily Show, character Sheldon Cooper dreams about it on The Big Bang Theory and fictional villains steal fictional antimatter from it in Angels & Demons.

    Despite their uptick in popularity, particle accelerators still have secrets to share. With input from scientists at laboratories and institutions worldwide, Symmetry has compiled a list of 10 things you might not know about particle accelerators....."

    [​IMG]
    Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago


    Richard
     

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